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The origin, evolution and classifications of the genus Lupinus L.
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The origin, evolution and classifications of the genus Lupinus L.

Boguslav S. Kurlovich,

International North Express Co., Leppälaaksontie 2 as 9, 52420, Pellosniemi, Finland; E-mail:

Sixth International Lugume Conference 2013, Johanesburg, SOUTH  AFRICA, 6 – 11 JANUARY 2013

As a result of our research during 1983-2012 the centres of formation of wild lupine species and those of diversity of cultivated species were refined. The system of taxonomic and eco-geographical classification of narrow-leaved, yellow and white lupine was developed. The initial evolution of lupines we associate with the theory of continental drift developed by A. Wegener (1912).  A common primary centre of formation of new forms of the early ancestors of lupines very likely existed before the divergence of the continents of Laurasia, and predominantly in its western part which subsequently became North America. It is confirmed by today's presence on the American continent of a large number of lupine species. Two secondary centres of diversity evolved , after the divergence of continents, in the Americas and the Mediterranean.  The most significant factors in the evolution and spread of lupine were continental drift, volcanoes, the earth's tilt, ocean currents and human activities. The Balkan Peninsula is a centre of diversity of white lupine and the Iberian - of yellow lupine.  Criteria for a number of taxa  within the genus Lupinus L. (subgenera, subspecies, varieties, forms) were suggested. As a result some new taxa were established. 

Due to the significant differences between lupines of two hemispheres, we revised two subgenera of Lupinus  and suggested a new classification :

I.   Subgen. Platycarpos (Wats.) Kurl. 1989, Bull. N.I. Vavilov Inst. Plant Industry 193:24. -    §2. PLATYCARPOS  S. Wats. 1873,  Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 8:522; B. Platycarpos Aschers. et Graebn. 1907, Mitteleurop. Fl. 6,2:232; §1. LUPINUS S.Wars. 1873,  l.c. 518, p.max.p.;A. Eulupinus  Aschers. et Graebn. 1907,  l.c. 221, p.p.- New World's or flat-fruited lupines. Geographic distribution: the Americas. This subgenus includes several hundreds of species requiring further analysis of their  authenticity.  The type of subgenusL. densiflorus  Benth.

II.  Subgen. Lupinus. 1989, Bull. N.I. Vavilov Inst. Plant Industry 193:23. - A. Eulupinus 

 Aschers. et Graebn. 1907, p.min.p. - Old World's lupins. Geographic distribution: Mediterranean and 

Africa. Some species are cultivated. The type of subgenus: L. albus L.

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